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    Sweet/Tart; Long, Flat, Bullet/oval-shaped; 1.49 g.

    Indigo Gem

    Sweet and slightly chewy; Short, oval-shaped; 1.30 g.


    Sweet; Short, flat, boxy; 1.62 g.


    Sweet; Pointed Pear; 1.9 grams

    Indigo Treat

    Sweet/Tart; Flat cylindrical; 1.29 g.

    Indigo Yum

    Sweet/Tangy; Long Flat oval-shaped; 1.29 g.

    Boreal Blizzard

    Surfboard; 2.8 g.

    Boreal Beauty

    Thick heart or oval; 2.6 g.

    Boreal Beast

    Thick heart or oval; 2.8 g.


    Sweet/Tangy; Ovate-rectangular; 1.7 g.


    Tart/Sweet; oval-shaped; 1.6 g.


    Sweet; Cylindrial; 1.6 g.


    Sweet/Tart; oval-shaped; 1.6 g.



    Sweet; Pointed Pear; 1.9 grams

    Berry Blue


    Honey Bee




    HASKAPS - The fruit of "long life" and "good vision"

    What is a Haskap?
    Where do they come from?
    Why are we only hearing about them now?
    What do they look like?
    What do they taste like
    When do they produce?
    What can we use them for?
    What are their Health Benefits?
    What are the research documents which support the health claims?

    What is a Haskap?

    Haskap is an exciting new crop for North America. The Blue honeysuckle belongs to the genus Lonicera and the species caerulea. Most people mistake the fruit as part of the vaccinium family (Blueberries and Cranberries), when in fact the fruit is more closely related to Tomatoes. It comes from the Dipsacales order and is related to the Snowberry and Elderberry. The fruits have long since been harvested for home and commercial use in China, Russia, and Japan. The name Haskap comes from the Ainu word “haskappu” meaning “little present at the end of the branch”and the Japanese to this date still call the berry “Haskap”. It has also been known as ‘Blue Honeysuckle’, ‘Honeyberry’, ‘Edible Honeysuckle’ and ‘Sweet Berry Honeysuckles’.

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    Where do they come from?

    Haskaps are native to the northern forests of Asia, Europe and Canada. The first introduction of cultivated plants in Beaverlodge, AB in the 1990's were bitter and not a very palatable berry, not suitable for commercial production. In 2005, the University of Saskatchewan using traditional propagation practices with cultivars obtained from all over the world, and using predominately the sweeter less hardy varieties from Northern Japan and the harder, tarter varieties from Russia, created plants that could withstand the climates of Canada (hardy to -40C) and could be commericially grown and machine harvested.

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    Why are we only hearing about them now?

    Early varieties were introduced to selected growers in Saskatchewan in 2008 and the list of growers has now expanded to all provinces of Canada. The plants require a minimum of 5 years to reach maturity and only now are growers starting to produce sufficient volumes to sell in stores.

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    What do they look like?

    The skin of the haskap is dark blue, with intense, vibrant purple flesh. They are long and cylinder about 1 cm in diameter and range from 1 - 4 cm long depending on variety. The seeds are very small, and almost imperceptible. New varieties are more oval and some are heart-shaped.

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    What do they taste like?

    These plants produce a fabulous unique tasting fruit that is hard to describe. The fruit has a sweet/tart flavour and is very juicy. It is often described as having tastes of wild blueberry, raspberry, black current, huckleberry, saskatoon, and blackberry with an added zing that is unique to the haskap.

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    When do they produce?

    The early varieties are the first fruit crops to ripen, even before strawberries. Each berry starts with twin flowers, forming a single berry with multiple skin layers inside. They bloom a month before the last frost and their flowers can take -7C without damage. The University of Saskatchewan has released new varieties that fruit later to extend the growing season.

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    What can we use them for?

    Haskaps have an intense colour and a powerful flavour making them a marvelous ingredient in just about everything.

      • Raw – used as any other fresh berry
      • Cooked – used in sauces and savory meals

      • Baked – used in pastries, tarts, pies, squares, etc.
      • Preserved – jams, jellies, juice, syrups, etc.
      • Dairy Products - ice cream, smoothies, yogurt, cheesecake etc.
      • Fruit Leather, Candies
      • Dried
      • Salad Dressings

      • Primary or Secondary flavoring for Beers, Wines, Liquors, Cordials, etc.

    The skin of the berry melts away in both baking and frozen desserts, perfect for scrumptuous muffins and delectable ice cream and smoothies. The berries are very suitable for juice production. They not only yield over 80% juice, but the rich colour remains stable and is full of flavour. It is this color that draws wineries and distrillers to produce fruit wines, table wines and liquors. It is also used as a food additive for enhancing colour in other food products.

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    What are the Health Benefits?


    with the addition of the


    “the fruit of longevity and good vision”


    • Highest anthocyanin content of any fruit

    • High in Flavonoids

    • High in Vitamin C

    • High in Vitamin A

    • High in Fiber

    • High in Potassium

    • Also contains the minerals: Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Iron, Zinc and Copper

    Vitamin C

    The Vitamin C content of Haskaps ranging between 29 and 187 mg/100 g, is significantly higher than in other vitamin c-rich sources such as oranges, strawberries, and raspberries. Vitamin C is one of the most important nutrients that we consume. It is an important vitamin for treating infections, viruses, and other conditions. Although research has not proven that vitamin C prevents the common cold, it does help patients recover more quickly.



    Haskap berries are also high in potassium, which is needed to build protein and muscle, metabolize carbohydrates, and maintain normal body growth. Potassium, along with the help of sodium, helps to balance fluid and electrolyte levels in the body, which is important for hydration.



    Haskap berries have one of the highest levels of anthocyanin of all fruit. Anthocyanin is the pigment usually found in the skin of fruits or vegetables that give it color. Haskaps are purple on the outside and purple on the inside.

    Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the major anthocyanin present in haskap, comprising about 70-92% of its total anthocyanin content and over 60% of the total polyphenols. Considerable evidence shows significant antioxidant, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties of the C3G-rich haskap preparations.

    Flavonoids – Q3R - Quercetin (Rutin and rutinose)

    Quercetin is a bioflavonoid, or plant pigment, that is found in Haskaps. Quercetin has powerful antioxidant properties. It helps your body produce collagen and use vitamin C.  Quercetin is thought to help blood circulation, prevent blood clots, lower cholesterol, reduce arthritis pain and to treat allergies, viruses and other


    Iriodroids are less common within fruit crops and are often found in plants which possess medicinal properties and are found in Haskaps.  Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation.


    Vitamin A

    Vitamin A is important for growth and development, for the maintenance of the immune system, and for good vision.

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    What are the supporting research documents?

    The conclusion that Haskap berry is a nutritional powerhouse is a given at this point and researchers around the world are now able to quantify and qualify the extent of these benefits.

    Supporting research documents follow:

    Supporting research documents follow:

    Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside-Rich Haskap Berry Administration Suppresses Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in A/JCr Mice

    Madumani Amararathna 1, DavidW. Hoskin 2,3 and H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe 1,2,
    Published: 22 August 2020

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G)-rich haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) berry extracts can attenuate the carcinogen-induced DNA damage in normal lung epithelial cells in vitro. Here, the efficacy of lyophilized powder of whole haskap berry (C3G-HB) in lowering tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/JCr mice was investigated. Three weeks after daily oral administration of C3G-HB (6 mg of C3G in 0.2 g of C3G-HB/mouse/day), lung tumors were initiated by a single intraperitoneal injection of NNK. Dietary C3G-HB supplementation was continued, and 22 weeks later, mice were euthanized. Lung tumors were visualized through positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 19 weeks after NNK injection. Dietary supplementation of C3G-HB significantly reduced the NNK-induced lung tumor multiplicity and tumor area but did not a_ect tumor incidence. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 in lung tissues. Therefore, C3G-HB has the potential to reduce the lung tumorigenesis, and to be used as a source for developing dietary supplements or nutraceuticals for reducing the risk of lung cancer among high-risk populations.

    5. Conclusions

    In summary, we have demonstrated that dietary supplementation of C3G-HB can inhibit the NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/JCr mice. C3G-HB may be a promising dietary supplement to suppress lung cancer development among high-risk populations such as smokers, possibly via effects on critical cellular signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation. Future studies of the effects of C3G-HB on phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes and cell signaling pathways will elucidate the mode of action of C3G-HB against lung carcinogenesis. Keywords: anthocyanin; tobacco-specific nitrosamine; carcinogenesis; cell proliferation; cancer

    From Science Direct:

    Anthocyanin-rich haskap berry extracts reduce nitrosamine-induced DNA damage in human normal lung epithelial cells in vitro

    M. Amararathnaa, D.W. Hoskinb,c, H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghea,c,
    Published May 1, 2020


    A B S T R A C T

    Diets rich in polyphenols are known to reduce cancer among high-risk populations. Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) berry has abundant phenolic acids and flavonoids, especially anthocyanins. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) present in cigarette smoke, is a major lung carcinogenic factor. We analyzed the efficacy of anthocyanin-rich haskap berry extracts in preventing DNA damage induced by 4-[(acetoxymethyl) nitrosamino]-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc), a precursor of NKK, in human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells in vitro. A cocktail of monomeric polyphenols from haskap berries was extracted separately in ethanol and water and profiled. Sub-lethal concentrations of NNKOAc were used to induce DNA damage in BEAS-2B cells, and a cell viability assay was performed to confirm that the tested concentrations of haskap extracts were not cytotoxic to BEAS-2B cells. Cells were pre-treated with the haskap extracts prior to NNKOAc exposure. Dose-dependent DNA damage was observed with carcinogenic NNKOAc, but did not occur in the presence of the haskap extracts. Pre-treatment of the cells with the haskap extracts significantly reduced NNKOAc-induced DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species and upregulated the ATM-dependent DNA damage repair cascade compared to non-treated BEAS-2B cells. The protective effect of haskap extracts could be related to their polyphenol content and high antioxidant capacity.


    Regular consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables reduces lung cancer risk among smokers (Buchner et al., 2010; Linseisen et al., 2007; Le Marchand et al., 2000). Polyphenols are known as chemopreventive agents that reduce carcinogen-induced DNA damage (Amararathna et al., 2016; George et al., 2017). Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) berry, also known as honeyberry or blue honeysuckle berry, is a berry fruit commercially grown in North America, Poland, Russia, China, and Japan (Rupasinghe et al., 2012). The berries are produced by a perennial deciduous shrub having upright growth. Haskap is used in Russian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian folk medicine to treat many diseases. The berries contain a diversity of phytochemicals, mainly anthocyanins and phenolic acids (Khattab et al., 2016; Rupasinghe et al., 2015; Takahashi et al., 2014). Recent studies have also confirmed the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, and antidiabetes properties of haskap berries (Rupasinghe et al., 2015, 2018; Svobodova et al., 2008; Pace et al., 2018; De Silva and Rupasinghe, 2020). Haskap berry extracts inhibited prostate cancer cell viability and decreased migration capacity and colony formation ability of prostate cancer cells in vitro (Ali et al., 2017).


    5. Conclusion

    The present study shows that anthocyanin-rich haskap berry extracts are able to reduce NNK-induced DNA damage in BEAS-2B lung epithelial cells. Therefore, anthocyanin-rich haskap berry extracts could be a potential dietary and nutraceutical source for suppression or prevention of tobacco-specific lung carcinogenesis. Further investigations using experimental animal models are needed to understand the chemopreventive potential and mechanism of anthocyanin-rich haskap extracts against NNK-inducedlung tumorigenesis.

    From the Journal of Food Composition and Analysis:

    The potential health benefits of haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.): Role of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside

    H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghea,b,, Niroshaathevi Arumuggama, Madumani Amararathnaa,b,

    A.B.K.H. De Silvaa

    a Department of Plant, Food, and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, Nova Scotia


    A B S T R A C T

    Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), an emerging commercial fruit crop in North America, has been known for its medicinal benefits amongst the people of Russia, Japan, and Northeastern China for centuries. The vitamin C content in haskap berries, ranging between 29 and 187 mg/100 g, is significantly higher than in other vitamin C rich sources such as oranges, strawberries, and raspberries. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the major anthocyanin present in haskap comprising about 7992% of its total anthocyanin content and over 60% of the total polyphenols. Considerable evidence shows significant antioxidant, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticancer, and anti-diabetic properties of C3G-rich haskap preparations and C3G alone both in vitro and in vivo. This review broadly discusses the in vitro and pre-clinical significance of haskap-mediated cytoprotection and disease prevention; thereby, we strongly suggest further exploration of C3G-rich haskap preparations as potential functional food, dietary antioxidant supplements as well as natural health products targeting specific chronic and metabolic diseases.



    From the Journal of Food Composition and Analysis:


    Polyphenols composition and anti-diabetic properties in vitro of haskap

    (Lonicera caerulea L.) berries in relation to cultivar and harvesting date

    A.B. Kithma H. De Silva, H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe*

    Department of Plant, Food, and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada A R


    A B S T R A C T

    Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) is a recently commercialized fruit crop in Canada. Berries of four cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa, and Evie, were harvested at five harvesting dates (H1-H5) and assessed for their polyphenol composition and anti-diabetic potential in vitro. The analyses revealed that the interaction effect of cultivar and harvesting date influenced the concentration of anthocyanins. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside represents about 79 % of total anthocyanins present in ripened haskap berries. Total anthocyanins estimated by a non-destructive method showed a strong correlation for quantified anthocyanin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLCESI-MS), indicating the potential application of the non-destructive method for deciding the berry maturity for mechanical harvesting of haskap berry for value-added processing. Extracts derived from five maturity stages offour cultivars showed anti-diabetic properties including inhibition of activities of alpha-amylase (IC50 ranges from 2380 to 5080 μg/mL), alpha-glucosidase (IC50 ranges from 1130 to 2120 μg/mL), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, IC50 ranges from 2150 to 11,600 μg/mL), and formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE, IC50 ranges from 1200 to 4790 μg/mL) in vitro. Though the impact of harvesting date on polyphenol composition is very distinct, the extracts of late harvesting date (H5) reduced the anti-diabetic activities in vitro only in Aurora and Larisa cultivars. Inhibition of DPP-4 and AGE formation dependent on cultivar and harvesting date. Haskap berry warrants further investigation as a dietary therapeutic to manage type 2 diabetes.



    Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Haskap Cultivars is Polyphenols-Dependent.

    Rupasinghe HP1, Boehm MM1, Sekhon-Loodu S1, Parmar I1, Bors B2, Jamieson AR3

    Biomolecules01 Jun 2015, 5(2):1079-1098
    10.3390/biom5021079 PMID: 26043379 PMCID: PMC4496711



    Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) berries have long been used for their health promoting properties against chronic conditions. The current study investigated the effect of Canadian haskap berry extracts on pro-inflammatory cytokines using a human monocytic cell line THP-1 derived macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. Methanol extracts of haskap from different growing locations in Canada were prepared and characterized for their total phenolic profile using colorimetric assays and liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Human THP-1 monocytes were seeded in 24-well plates (5 × 10⁵/well) and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.1 μg/mL) for 48 h to induce macrophage differentiation. After 48 h, the differentiated macrophages were washed with Hank's buffer and treated with various concentrations of test compounds for 4 h, followed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation (18 h). Borealis cultivar showed the highest phenolic content, flavonoid content and anthocyanin content (p < 0.05). A negative correlation existed between the polyphenol concentration of the extracts and pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin (PGE2), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. Borealis exhibited comparable anti-inflammatory effects to COX inhibitory drug, diclofenac. The results showed that haskap berry polyphenols has the potential to act as an effective inflammation inhibitor.

    Link to article:



    Berry fruits as a source of biologically active compounds: the case of Lonicera caerulea.

    Svarcova I1Heinrich JValentova K.




    Lonicera caerulea L. (blueberry honeysuckle, Caprifoliaceae) is a traditional crop in northern Russia, China, and Japan. Its fruits are little known as edible berries in North America and Europe. This review deals with the botany and chemical composition of L. caerulea and the biological activity of its main constituents, focusing on the potential health benefits of the berries.


    PubMed, Science Direct and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were used for this paper. Literature sources include the period 1935-2007. L. caerulea berries a are rich source of phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and other flavonoids, which display potential health promoting effects. Chemopreventive, antimicrobial, anti-adherence and antioxidant benefits, among others are described for these compounds.


    The potential of L. caerulea berries to prevent chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer seems to be related above all to their phenolic content.

    PMID: 18345248

    DOI: 10.5507/bp.2007.031




    Health Properties and Composition of Honeysuckle Berry Lonicera caerulea L. An Update on Recent Studies

    Marta Gołba,* Anna Sokół-Łętowska, and Alicja Z. Kucharska

    Francesco Cacciola, Academic Editor


    Lonicera caerulea L., also known as haskap or honeysuckle berry, is a fruit commonly planted in eastern Europe, Canada and Asia. The fruit was registered as a traditional food from a third country under European Union regulations only on December 2018. It is resistant to cold, pests, various soil acidities and diseases. However, its attractiveness is associated mostly with its health properties. The fruit shows anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity—important factors in improving health. These features result from the diverse content of phytochemicals in honeysuckle berries with high concentrations of phytocompounds, mainly hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, flavanols, flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones and anthocyanins but also iridoids, present in the fruit in exceptional amounts. The content and health properties of the fruit were identified to be dependent on cultivar, genotype and the place of harvesting. Great potential benefits of this nutritious food are its ability to minimize the negative effects of UV radiation, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, and to exert hepato- and cardioprotective activity.


    From Biomolecules 2015, 5, 1079-1098; doi:10.3390/biom5021079 biomolecules ISSN 2218-273X


    Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Haskap Cultivars is Polyphenols-Dependent

    H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe 1,*, Mannfred M. A. Boehm 1 , Satvir Sekhon-Loodu 1 , Indu Parmar 1 , Bob Bors 2 and Andrew R. Jamieson 3 1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro,


    Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) berries have long been used for their health promoting properties against chronic conditions. The current study investigated the effect of Canadian haskap berry extracts on pro-inflammatory cytokines using a human monocytic cell line THP-1 derived macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. Methanol extracts of haskap from different growing locations in Canada were prepared and characterized for their total phenolic profile using colorimetric assays and liquid chromatography—Mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Human THP-1 monocytes were seeded in 24-well plates (5 × 105 /well) and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.1 g/mL) for 48 h to induce macrophage differentiation. After 48 h, the differentiated macrophages were washed with Hank’s buffer and treated with various concentrations of test compounds for 4 h, followed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation (18 h). Borealis cultivar showed the highest phenolic content, flavonoid content and anthocyanin content (p < 0.05). A negative correlation existed between the polyphenol concentration of the extracts and pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-), prostaglandin (PGE2), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. Borealis exhibited comparable anti-inflammatory OPEN ACCESS Biomolecules 2015, 5 1080 effects to COX inhibitory drug, diclofenac. The results showed that haskap berry polyphenols has the potential to act as an effective inflammation inhibitor.


    Molecules. 2017 Mar 5;22(3). pii: E405. doi: 10.3390/ molecules22030405.

    Iridoids, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Edible Honeysuckle Berries (Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica Sevast.).

    Kucharska AZ1Sokół-Łętowska A2Oszmiański J3Piórecki N4,5Fecka I6.



    Iridoid and polyphenol profiles of 30 different honeysuckle berry cultivars and genotypes were studied. Compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS) in positive and negative ion modes and quantified by HPLC-PDA. The 50 identified compounds included 15 iridoids, 6 anthocyanins, 9 flavonols, 2 flavanonols (dihydroflavonols), 5 flavones, 6 flavan-3-ols, and 7 phenolic acids. 8-epi-Loganic acid, pentosyl-loganic acid, taxifolin 7-O-dihexoside, and taxifolin 7-O-hexoside were identified in honeysuckle berries for the first time. Iridoids and anthocyanins were the major groups of bioactive compounds of honeysuckle constituents. The total content of quantified iridoids and anthocyanins was between 128.42 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw) ('Dlinnoplodnaya') and 372 mg/100 g fw ('Kuvshinovidnaya') and between 150.04 mg/100 g fw ('Karina') and 653.95 mg/100 g fw ('Amur'), respectively. Among iridoids, loganic acid was the dominant compound, and it represented between 22% and 73% of the total amount of quantified iridoids in honeysuckle berry. A very strong correlation was observed between the antioxidant potential and the quantity of anthocyanins. High content of iridoids in honeysuckle berries can complement antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds


    Medicine - National Institutes of Health:

    Anti-inflammatory iridoids of botanical origin.

    Viljoen A1, Mncwangi N, Vermaak I.


    Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo.


    From the US National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health:

    Polyphenols: well beyond the antioxidant capacity: gallic acid and related compounds as neuroprotective agents: you are what you eat!

    Daglia M, Di Lorenzo A, Nabavi SF, Talas ZS, Nabavi SM1.


    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a phenolic acid widely distributed in many different families of

    higher plants, both in free state, and as a part of more complex molecules, such as ester derivatives or polymers. In nature, gallic acid and its derivatives are present in nearly every part of the plant, such as bark, wood, leaf, fruit, root and seed. They are present in different concentrations in common foodstuffs such as blueberry, blackberry, strawberry, plums, grapes, mango, cashew nut, hazelnut, walnut, tea, wine and so on. After consumption, about 70% of gallic acid is adsorbed and then excreted in the urine as 4-O-methylgallic acid. Differently, the ester derivatives of gallic acid, such as catechin gallate ester or Gallo tannins, are hydrolyzed to gallic acid before being metabolized to methylated derivatives. Gallic acid is a well known antioxidant compounds which has neuroprotective actions in different models of neurodegeneration, neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. In this review, we discuss about the neuroprotective actions of gallic acid and derivatives and their potential mechanisms of action.


    Phytother Res. 2012 Mar;26(3):462-4. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3529. Epub 2011 Jul 5.

    Quercetin 3-rhamnoside exerts antiinfluenza A virus activity in mice.

    Choi HJ1Song JHKwon DH.



    Our previous report showed that quercetin 3-rhamnoside (Q3R) possessed antiviral activity against influenza A/WS/33 virus in vitro. The present study evaluated the effect of Q3R on influenza A/WS/33 virus infected mice. Mice orally treated with Q3R (6.25 mg/kg per dose) at 2 h before and once daily for 6 days after influenza virus infection showed significant decreases in weight loss, and decreased mortality. Lung virus titers of mice killed at 6 days after infection were about 2000 times lower than that of the placebo-treated control mice and about two times lower than that for the oseltamivir-treated mice. Furthermore, histological evaluation showed that administration of Q3R delayed the development and progression of pulmonary lesions. Therefore, Q3R could be an attractive lead for the development of antiviral agents against influenza virus.



    The following is from the publication “Second Helpings – Cooking with Haskaps by Loretta Bors and Lil Sawatzky Published by Globe Printers, Saskatoon, SK  August, 2015 2nd Edition



    Deana Steele, RHN  Digestion Specialist

    Haskap Berries Can Tame Inflammation

    Haskap berries are known for their protection against chronic diseases. Inflammation is the underlying cause for many chronic diseases. Recent research has shown that haskap berry polyphenols have the ability to act as an effective inflammation inhibitor. Pro-inflammatory cells wreck havoc on the body by irritating and causing swelling to major organs and tissues. Inflammation also prevents enzymes from carrying out their message-delivering responsibilities. This may eventually cause the organ or tissue to stop functioning altogether.

    A Superfood Bursting with Antioxidants

    Haskap berries have as much as three times the amount of antioxidants as a blueberry, making it a nutrient-packed superfood. Antioxidants combat free radicals (bad cells), in our body by binding to them and removing their hydrogen bond. Once this hydrogen bond is removed, these bad cells have the potential to become free radicals themselves, which creates an alkaline or balanced environment in which chronic diseases cannot thrive in.

    Improve Hydration & Many Serious Health Conditions

    They are believed to be beneficial in treating chronic conditions such as cancer, heart disease, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Rheumatoid arthritis, and cataracts. Antioxidants are also crucial to digestive health as they promote a healthy immune system as well as the growth of good bacteria.



    Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

    Anthocyanins and Human Health: An In Vitro Investigative Approach

    Mary Ann Lila 1

    Received02 Apr 2004

    Revised10 May 2004

    Accepted12 May 2004


    Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated ability to protect against a myriad of human diseases, yet they have been notoriously difficult to study with regard to human health. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals to potentiate biological effects, thus contributions from individual components are difficult to decipher. The complex, multicomponent structure of compounds in a bioactive mixture and the degradation of flavonoids during harsh extraction procedures obscure the precise assignment of bioactivity to individual pigments. Extensive metabolic breakdown after ingestion complicates tracking of anthocyanins to assess absorption, bioavailability, and accumulation in various organs. Anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids that are uniformly, predictably produced in rigorously controlled plant cell culture systems can be a great advantage for health and nutrition research because they are quickly, easily isolated, lack interferences found in whole fruits, can be elicited to provoke rapid and prolific accumulation, and are amenable to biolabeling so that metabolic fate can be investigated after ingestion.



    Phenolic Acid Profiles in Some Small Berries

    Cite this: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 6, 2118-2124

    Publication Date:February 22, 2005



    The composition of phenolic acids in several small berries grown in Northeastern Poland, namely, low-bush blueberries, black mulberries, European juneberries, black currants, fruits of blue-berried honeysuckle, and blackberries, was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The total content of phenolic acids, identified by GC-MS, ranged from 2845.8 ± 141.0 (black mulberries) to 5418.2 ± 228.0 (blue-berried honeysuckle). Twenty phenolic acids were identified in the berries. Of these, hydroxycaffeic, m- and p-coumaric, and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acids were the major phenolic acids in blackberries and blueberries, m-coumaric acid was the major phenolic acid in blue-berried honeysuckle and black currant fruits, while salicylic, caffeic, and m- and p-coumaric acids were the predominant phenolic acids in European juneberries. Syringic and veratric acids were detected only in blueberries, while p-hydroxybenzoic and sinapic acids were present only in black currants and o-coumaric acid was present in blueberries and black mulberries. The phenolic acids liberated from esters and glycosidic bonds were the major fractions of phenolic acids in the berries.

    Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Their Derivatives: Cosmeceutical Significance, Challenges and Future Perspectives, a

    Review Oludemi Taofiq 1,2,3, Ana M. González-Paramás 2 , Maria Filomena Barreiro 3 and Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira 1,*

    Received: 22 January 2017; Accepted: 8 February 2017; Published: 13 February 2017


    Bioactive compounds from natural sources, due to their widely-recognized benefits, have been exploited as cosmeceutical ingredients. Among them, phenolic acids emerge with a very interesting potential. In this context, this review analyzes hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives as multifunctional ingredients for topical application, as well as the limitations associated with their use in cosmetic formulations. Hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives display antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase activities, as well as ultraviolet (UV) protective effects, suggesting that they can be exploited as anti-aging and anti-inflammatory agents, preservatives and hyperpigmentation-correcting ingredients. Due to their poor stability, easy degradation and oxidation, microencapsulation techniques have been employed for topical application, preventing them from degradation and enabling a sustained release. Based on the above findings, hydroxycinnamic acids present high cosmetic potential, but studies addressing the validation of their benefits in cosmetic formulations are still scarce. Furthermore, studies dealing with skin permeation are scarcely available and need to be conducted in order to predict the topical bioavailability of these compounds after application.

    Article from Heal with Food Organization:


    Blue Honeysuckle Berries (Haskap): Health Benefits, Nutrition Facts, and Growing Tips

    Anthocyanins in Blue Honeyberries Linked to Many Health Benefits

    In 2009, a group of Slovak researchers published a study that analyzed the anthocyanin content of six uncommon berries, including black mulberries (Morus nigra), Cornelian cherries (Cornus mas), dewberries (Rubus caesius), Blackthorns (Prunus spinosa), rowanberries (Sorbus aucuparia), and Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica, a blue honeyberry variety that is native to Northeastern Asia. In this studyhoneyberries had by far the highest levels of anthocyanins. Fruits and berries rich in anthocyanin flavonoids have several potential health benefits, including:

    Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    Growing evidence indicates that anthocyanins have anti-inflammatory activity, suggesting that anthocyanin-containing foods and supplements might help prevent or fight certain inflammatory conditions such as gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and rheumatoid arthritis. A study published in the June 2010 issue of the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology specifically analyzed the effects of an anthocyanin-rich extract derived from blue honeyberries on human gingival fibroblasts. It found that the extract was capable of attenuating the inflammatory process that can lead to periodontal diseases such as gingivitis.

    Good for the Eyes

    You may have already heard that bilberries (wild blueberries) are good for your eyes, but also other anthocyanin-rich foods such as blue honeyberries may help keep your eyes healthy. A growing body of evidence suggests that anthocyanins can benefit eyesight in a number of ways, including by increasing circulation within retinal capillaries, enhancing night vision, fighting macular degeneration, and preventing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Furthermore, a study published in the May 2006 issue of the journal Experimental Eye Research found that blue honeysuckle extract attenuated the degree of inflammation in the eyes of rats with experimentally-induced uveitis. Uveitis, a leading cause of visual impairment in the UK and the US, is an inflammatory eye disease that causes swelling and destroys eye tissue.

    Inhibitory Effects Against Colon Cancer Cells

    A group of scientists from the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at the University of Maryland analyzed the chemopreventive effects of natural anthocyanin extracts against colon cancer cells, and found that all tested anthocyanin extracts inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells.

    Cardiovascular Benefits

    If you've been looking for ways to fight venous insufficiency or varicose veins through diet, adding anthocyanin-rich berries such as blue honeyberries might be a good start. Anthocyanins may help keep your veins healthy by neutralizing enzymes that destroy connective tissue, by repairing damaged proteins in the blood vessel walls, and by promoting healthy circulation. As an added bonus, blue honeysuckle berries contain high levels of chlorogenic acid, a phytochemical that may provide additional vascular benefits by controlling blood pressure.




    Recent research reported in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, December, 2008, analyzed a phenolic fraction from the berries to determine its nutrients and micronutrients. Researchers determined the content of anthocyanins, with cyanidin-3-glucoside being the most prominent. Anthocyanins are pigments in the plant from which it gets its antioxidant, anti-platelet, and wound healing abilities. Other flavonoids found included the following:

    Rutin reduces inflammation, and fights cancer, boosts the effectiveness of vitamin C, maintains blood vessels, and supports collagen so necessary for young, supple skin.

    Quercetin neutralizes free radicals to prevent cellular damage, combats cancer, alleviates bruising and varicose veins, enhances cardiovascular health, prevents oxidation of cholesterol, and improves lung health and respiration.

    Epicatechin is believed by many researchers to be able to prevent four of the top five killer diseases: heart failure, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. They see a shortage of this phenomenal nutrient as the cause of many diseases of modern times. Epicatechin is considered so important to the body that it is under consideration for classification as a vitamin.

    Protocatechuic acid is anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and anti-carcinogenic. It is another potent free radical fighter.

    Genistic acid is also another potent free radical fighter.

    Ellagitannins convert in the body into ellagic acid, one of the most powerful antioxidants known, and a powerful cancer fighter. Ellagic acid has the ability to inhibit mutations in DNA and promote apoptosis (appropriate death) of cancer cells. It also has anti-viral and anti-bacterial qualities.

    Ferulic Acid provides rigidity to cell walls and is a protector of the nervous system. It normalizes blood pressure.

    Caffeic Acid and chlorogenic acid work together to protect cerebral neurons. These acids are effective against liver toxicity, promote cell differentiation, and normalize colon function. They have been found effective in halting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    In this study blue honeysuckle dried fruit was shown to reduce the ability of parasites to form and adhere. These included Candida, Staphylococcus, E. Coli, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus varieties.

    The November, 2008 journal Molecules reports a study of blue honeysuckle berries to determine their ability to prevent nervous system disease. Researchers found them to be potent sources of neuron-protective antioxidants that could prevent neurodegenerative diseases.

    The Archieves of Dermatology Research, June, 2008, reported a study finding that blue honeysuckle fruit suppressed UVA induced free radical production and decreased intracellular lipid peroxidation while increasing glutathione production. Glutathione is the most potent of the endogenously produced antioxidants.

    A study reported in Experimental Eye Research, May, 2006, found that blue honeysuckle berry extract reduced inflammation from eye disease and produced pro-inflammatory mediators in the eye.

    A study from China reported in November, 2005, found blue honeysuckle berries reduced inflammatory reaction to food induced allergies.

    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2005, reported that blue honeysuckle works as a potent anti-inflammatory by suppressing production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Nitric oxide is a producer of free radicals during inflammatory responses.

    Researchers found blue honeysuckle berries to possess the highest content of phenolic acids compared to other berries tested, in a study reported in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, March, 2005. Tested against blueberries, mulberries, juneberries, black currants, and blackberries, the berries from the blue honeysuckle consistently produced the highest level of antioxidants.

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